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Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like In Festinger and Carlsmith's (1959) experiment in which they asked individuals to "lie" and tell the next participant how exciting the experiment turning knobs was, which group reported on a follow-up questionnaire the most satisfaction in their knob-turning experience?, The "A" in the "ABCs" of attitudes is, refer to beliefs and . What are some practical implications of cognitive dissonance theory? The Ss were given a very good reason, in addition to being paid, for saying what they did to the waiting girl. endobj Let us review these briefly: 1. The content of what the S said before the girl made the remark that her friend told her it was boring. (1984, August) Psychology Today, pp.40-45. If you want somebody to like you, induce the person to perform "liking behavior" such as doing you a favor. 0000000848 00000 n If you change your attitudes, then presumably your behavior will change. . How would a social psychologist describe this situation? Twenty Dollar condition. Our identity is in part created by identifying ourselves with the organization or the community for which the sacrifices have been made. Kerry's positive attitude toward China, even though she has never been there, seems to be related to the fact that her mother is Chinese and talks about China all the time with Kerry. endstream endobj 81 0 obj <>>>/Metadata 53 0 R/OCProperties<>/OCGs[92 0 R]>>/Pages 73 0 R/StructTreeRoot 70 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> endobj 82 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]>>/Rotate 0/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 504.0 720.0]/Type/Page>> endobj 83 0 obj <>stream Patrick is very proud of his Irish heritage and thinks of himself as an Irish American. At the supermarket, a demonstrator gives away free samples of a new pizza. We are certainly justified in concluding that the Ss in the One Dollar condition did not improvise more nor act more convincingly. The students presumably put some effort into building and defending their arguments. For example, one way would be for the S to magnify for himself the value of the reward he obtained. They asked the participants to execute boring tasks, such as 3. experiment. 112 Festinger, L. (1957). Three other participants declined the offer and another one, though he gave the girl a positive briefing, he asked for the girl's number afterwards so he can, according to him, explain to her further what the study is about. Desire to Participate in a Similar Experiment. In Festinger and Carlsmith's experiment, 11 of the 71 responses were considered invalid for a couple of reasons. Psychol., 1954, 49, 211-218. But when Eddie is late the next day, he blames it on heavy traffic. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203-210. About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features NFL Sunday Ticket Press Copyright . The experimenter (E) then came in, introducing himself to the S and, together, they walked into the laboratory room where the E said: With no further introduction or explanation the S was shown the first task, which involved putting 12 spools onto a tray, emptying the tray, refilling it with spools, and so on. Rating scale 0 to 10. Check out our quiz-page with tests about: Explorable.com (Nov 21, 2010). It is clear from examining the table that, in all cases, the Twenty Dollar condition is slightly higher The differences are small, however, and only on the rating of "amount of time" does the difference between the two conditions even approach significance. in order to reduce dissonance. The other group was paid 1/20th as much, the equivalent of about $5 now. Relat., 1956, 9, 177-186. This manufacturer is depending on the social process of______ to increase sales. xc```c``Ab,@rb0Sb3``!`m@y"f@00]`ah|GC "$ ] Her parents attribute this to Elizabeth's laziness. Christopher D. Green Through the lens of cognitive dissonance theory, however, the explanation was a bit different. 0000010779 00000 n The present experiment was designed to test this derivation under controlled, laboratory conditions. One of the major weaknesses of the data is that not all subjects in the experiment made an overt statement contrary to their private opinion in order to obtain the offered reward. Our identity is in part created by identifying ourselves with the organization or the community for which the sacrifices have been made. The concept of aggression as a basic human instinct driving people to destructive acts was part of early_____theory. Participants were asked, "Would you please tell the next subject in line that the experiment was fun and enjoyable?" As a rule, cognitive dissonance theory predicts that attitudes and behaviors will remain in synchrony. repeatedly turning pegs in a peg board for an hour. This automatic assumption about the student's personality is an example of, The process of explaining one's own behavior and the behavior of other people is called. Write to Dr. Dewey at psywww@gmail.com. This works (according to cognitive dissonance theory) because, once the person has put out time and energy to help you, the person must develop an attitude consistent with the behavior. & KING, B.T. They asked the participants to execute boring tasks, such as repeatedly. Karen is engaging in, The sadistic behavior of the "guards" in Philip Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Study, highlighted the influence that a social role can have on ordinary people, Jim jumped into the ocean to save a drowning man, risking his own life in the process. Which event or moment has the greatest effect on the author's decision to protest? Elizabeth's room is almost always a mess. Hoffer pointed out that, after the Nazis had started persecuting the Jews, it became easier for the average German citizen to hate the Jews. The three components of attitude are _____, thoughts, and actions. 5. What is the reason for the lack of action, according to Darley and Latane? The participants who were paid only $1 to perform the boring When the interview was over, the interviewer brought the S back to the experimental room where the E was waiting together with the girl who had posed as the waiting S. (In the control condition, of course, the girl was not there.) In this experiment, 71 male participants were given a series of nonsensical and boring tasks. He reasoned that if the person is induced to make an overt statement contrary to his private opinion by the offer of some reward, then the greater the reward offered, the greater should be the subsequent opinion change. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203-211. <> New York Times, p.C1. Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) investigated if making people perform a dull task would create cognitive dissonance through forced compliance behavior. Which of the following was NOT a component of Robert Sternberg's theory of love? A bank loan officer thinks people who speak with an accent are lazy; consequently, he refuses to grant them loans. KING, B.T. Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith (1959) conducted an experiment entitled "Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance". Studies have found the degree of conformity to be greater in_______ cultures. The said images can be a reference to physical reality or in comparison to other people. Franklin said if you want someone to like you, get that person to do you a favor. Two Ss (both in the One Dollar condition) told the girl that they had been hired, that the experiment was really boring but they were supposed to say it was fun. Jane used ______ when receiving the officer's message. He doesn't run over to help her because he assumes there is probably someone else in the crowd who is a doctor or nurse and who can provide better assistance. 49 0 obj These results are the ones most directly relevant to the specific dissonance which we experimentally created It will be recalled that the tasks were purposely arranged to be rather boring and monotonous. You can use it freely (with some kind of link), and we're also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations (with clear attribution). If the results of our experiment are to be taken as strong corroboration of the theory of cognitive dissonance, this possible alternative explanation must be dealt with. Lilly's mother always listens to the classic rock station on her car radio, so Lilly has grown up hearing that music and noticing how much her mother enjoys it. That is uncomfortable, unless you have a good explanation for your behavior (such as being paid a lot of money). Like Explorable? If a person is induced to do or say something which is contrary to his private opinion, there will be a tendency for him to change his opinion so as to bring it into correspondence with what he has done or said. In the Latane and Darley experiment, subjects were most likely to help when______. Research has found that the view that opposites attract, According to Sternberg, love consists of intimacy, passion, and, Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love says that companionate love consists of, Karen intentionally tries to hurt Lisa by spreading rumors about her. Festinger's theory said that when a person holds contradictory elements in cognition (producing an unpleasant state called dissonance) the person will work to bring the elements back into agreement or congruence. The defendant was not very well spoken and came from a very poor background, but Sandy listened carefully to the evidence presented and made her decision based on that. An experiment by Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) brought cognitive dissonance theory to the attention of American social psychologists. [/PDF A theory of cognitive dissonance. Lilly's attitude toward classic rock was most likely acquired through______. The results, according to the researchers, display the cognitive dissonance phenomenon. Maria's fellow professor asked her to teach an honors class in the spring. Don't have time for it all now? The participants were 71 male students in totality. This is. Therefore the person's attitude changes. He was told again to use one band and to work at his own speed. In the . A police officer comes to Jane's office to discuss personal safety with the employees there. The results are weakly in line with what one would expect if the dissonance were somewhat reduced in this manner. Carlsmith performed an experiment regarding cognitive dissonance in Behavior that is intended to hurt or destroy another person is referred to as. The behavioral component of prejudice is______. I'm sure you'll enjoy it." Now Lilly says that classic rock is her favorite music, too. Once a situation has been defined as an emergency, the next step in the decision-making process is_______. Which of the following statements is TRUE? Procedure In this experiment, 71 male participants were given a series of nonsensical and boring tasks. 4. (The secretary had left the office.) The theory was first introduced in his 1957 book A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance and further elaborated in the article Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance (Festinger and Carlsmith, 1959). In the famous Festinger experiment, participants were paid either $1 or $20 to lie to a woman in the waiting room about how interesting the task really was. 60 0 obj Psy 301: Social Psychology 51 0 obj In the chapter section Attitudes and Behaviours that Affect Social Interaction, Paul Angelini (2011) introdected the negative elements of social interactio Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards; Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card; audio not yet available for this language, In Solomon Asch's study, confederates were instructed to, give the incorrect answer to the line-matching task.